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passaggioasudest [ la realtà politica dell'europa sud orientale dai balcani alla turchia ]
 



Questo blog è dedicato ad un'area cruciale per il futuro europeo. Per l'area che va dai Balcani occidentali alla Turchia, infatti, passa il futuro dell'Unione europea come progetto politico così come il futuro di questi Paesi passa dalla scelta dell'integrazione in questo progetto.




"Dobbiamo ricordarci che l’informazione è un veicolo diretto all’utente, non è un soliloquio da parte del giornalista. Bisogna tenere sempre presente che chi è dall’altra parte del microfono deve poter comprendere una realtà in cui non è presente. Questo, penso, è il massimo sforzo che i giornalisti devono compiere".
Antonio Russo



"Il vero referendum sul futuro dell'Unione si terrà nei Balcani"
International Balkan Commission


"E poi, un giorno, è stato costruito un ponte che collegava le due rive del Bosforo. Quando sono salito sul ponte e ho guardato il panorama, ho capito che era ancora meglio, ancora più bello di vedere le due rive assieme. Ho capito che il meglio era essere un ponte fra due rive. Rivolgersi alle due rive senza appartenere".
Orhan Pamuk, Istanbul



Per inviare una email scrivi a pasudest@yahoo.it





18 febbraio 2007


LA RISULUZIONE 1244 SUL KOSOVO

Il Consiglio di Sicurezza dell'OnuIl 10 giugno 1999, al termine dell’intervento militare della Nato che pose fine alla pulizia etnica voluta dal regime di Slobodan Milosevic contro i kosovari albanesi, il Consiglio di sicurezza dell’Onu adottò la risoluzione 1244.Il 21 febbraio prossimo a Vienna si svolgerà l’ultimo round negoziale tra serbi e kosovari albanesi per cercare di trovare un compromesso sul futuro status della privincia. Un compromesso "altemente improbabile" come ha detto lo stesso capo negoziatore Ahtisaari, visto che le posizioni delle due parti restano distanti e inconciliabili: gli albanesi vogliono l’indipendenza, i serbi sono disposti a concedere al massimo una larga autonomia. Il "piano Ahtisaari" prevede un’indipendenza "condizionata" per il Kosovo e l’autogoverno per le enclave della minoranza serba. Dopo Vienna il piano andrà all’attenzione del segretario generale dell’Onu e la parola passerà al Consiglio di sicurezza. E’ probabile, quindi, che lo status sarà alla fine imposto. I kosovari albanesi possono contare sull’appoggio degli Usa, ma la Russia (tradizionale protettrice della Serbia) non fa mistero dell’intenzione di far valere il proprio diritto di veto. Penso quindi sia interessante, con l’approssimarsi di settimane cruciali per i Balcani (e non solo, visti i contraccolpi che le decisioni sul Kosovo avranno per altre terre contese, soprattutto in Caucaso) andare a rileggersi cosa dice la risoluzione 1244.


UNITED NATIONS

SECURITY COUNCIL
10 June 1999

RESOLUTION 1244 (1999)

Adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting,on 10 June 1999

The Security Council,

Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United

Nations, and the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security,

Recalling its resolutions 1160 (1998) of 31 March 1998, 1199 (1998) of 23 September 1998, 1203 (1998) of 24 October 1998 and 1239 (1999) of 14 May 1999,

Regretting that there has not been full compliance with the requirements of these resolutions,

Determined to resolve the grave humanitarian situation in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to provide for the safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes,

Condemning all acts of violence against the Kosovo population as well as all terrorist acts by any party,

Recalling the statement made by the Secretary-General on 9 April 1999, expressing concern at the humanitarian tragedy taking place in Kosovo,

Reaffirming the right of all refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in safety,

Recalling the jurisdiction and the mandate of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia,

Welcoming the general principles on a political solution to the Kosovo crisis adopted on 6 May 1999 (S/1999/516, annex 1 to this resolution) and welcoming also the acceptance by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of the principles set forth in points 1 to 9 of the paper presented in Belgrade on 2 June 1999 (S/1999/649, annex 2 to this resolution), and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s agreement to that paper,

Reaffirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the other States of the region, as set out in the Helsinki Final Act and annex 2,

Reaffirming the call in previous resolutions for substantial autonomy and meaningful self-administration for Kosovo,

Determining that the situation in the region continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,

Determined to ensure the safety and security of international personnel and the implementation by all concerned of their responsibilities under the present resolution, and acting for these purposes under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

1. Decides that a political solution to the Kosovo crisis shall be based on the general principles in annex 1 and as further elaborated in the principles and other required elements in annex 2;

2. Welcomes the acceptance by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of the principles and other required elements referred to in paragraph 1 above, and demands the full cooperation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in their rapid implementation;

3. Demands in particular that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia put an immediate and verifiable end to violence and repression in Kosovo, and begin and complete verifiable phased withdrawal from Kosovo of all military, police and paramilitary forces according to a rapid timetable, with which the deployment of the international security presence in Kosovo will be synchronized;

4. Confirms that after the withdrawal an agreed number of Yugoslav and Serb military and police personnel will be permitted to return to Kosovo to perform the functions in accordance with annex 2;

5. Decides on the deployment in Kosovo, under United Nations auspices, of international civil and security presences, with appropriate equipment and personnel as required, and welcomes the agreement of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to such presences;

6. Requests the Secretary-General to appoint, in consultation with the Security Council, a Special Representative to control the implementation of the international civil presence, and further requests the Secretary-General to instruct his Special Representative to coordinate closely with the international security presence to ensure that both presences operate towards the same goals and in a mutually supportive manner;

7. Authorizes Member States and relevant international organizations to establish the international security presence in Kosovo as set out in point 4 of annex 2 with all necessary means to fulfil its responsibilities under paragraph 9 below;

8. Affirms the need for the rapid early deployment of effective international civil and security presences to Kosovo, and demands that the parties cooperate fully in their deployment;

9. Decides that the responsibilities of the international security presence to be deployed and acting in Kosovo will include:
(a) Deterring renewed hostilities, maintaining and where necessary enforcing a ceasefire, and ensuring the withdrawal and preventing the return into Kosovo of Federal and Republic military, police and paramilitary forces,except as provided in point 6 of annex 2;
(b) Demilitarizing the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and other armed Kosovo Albanian groups as required in paragraph 15 below;
(c) Establishing a secure environment in which refugees and displaced persons can return home in safety, the international civil presence can operate,a transitional administration can be established, and humanitarian aid can be delivered;
(d) Ensuring public safety and order until the international civil presence can take responsibility for this task;
(e) Supervising demining until the international civil presence can, as appropriate, take over responsibility for this task;
(f) Supporting, as appropriate, and coordinating closely with the work of the international civil presence;
(g) Conducting border monitoring duties as required;
(h) Ensuring the protection and freedom of movement of itself, the international civil presence, and other international organizations;

10. Authorizes the Secretary-General, with the assistance of relevant international organizations, to establish an international civil presence in Kosovo in order to provide an interim administration for Kosovo under which the people of Kosovo can enjoy substantial autonomy within the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, and which will provide transitional administration while establishing and overseeing the development of provisional democratic selfgoverning institutions to ensure conditions for a peaceful and normal life for all inhabitants of Kosovo;

11. Decides that the main responsibilities of the international civil
presence will include:
(a) Promoting the establishment, pending a final settlement, of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo, taking full account of annex 2 and of the Rambouillet accords (S/1999/648);
(b) Performing basic civilian administrative functions where and as long as required;
(c) Organizing and overseeing the development of provisional institutions for democratic and autonomous self-government pending a political settlement, including the holding of elections;
(d) Transferring, as these institutions are established, its administrative responsibilities while overseeing and supporting the consolidation of Kosovo’s local provisional institutions and other peacebuilding activities;
(e) Facilitating a political process designed to determine Kosovo’s future status, taking into account the Rambouillet accords (S/1999/648);
(f) In a final stage, overseeing the transfer of authority from Kosovo’s provisional institutions to institutions established under a political settlement;
(g) Supporting the reconstruction of key infrastructure and other economic reconstruction;
(h) Supporting, in coordination with international humanitarian organizations, humanitarian and disaster relief aid;
(i) Maintaining civil law and order, including establishing local police forces and meanwhile through the deployment of international police personnel to serve in Kosovo;
(j) Protecting and promoting human rights;
(k) Assuring the safe and unimpeded return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in Kosovo;

12. Emphasizes the need for coordinated humanitarian relief operations,
and for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to allow unimpeded access to Kosovo by humanitarian aid organizations and to cooperate with such organizations so as to ensure the fast and effective delivery of international aid;

13. Encourages all Member States and international organizations to
contribute to economic and social reconstruction as well as to the safe return of refugees and displaced persons, and emphasizes in this context the importance of convening an international donors’ conference, particularly for the purposes set out in paragraph 11 (g) above, at the earliest possible date;

14. Demands full cooperation by all concerned, including the international
security presence, with the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia;

15. Demands that the KLA and other armed Kosovo Albanian groups end
immediately all offensive actions and comply with the requirements for demilitarization as laid down by the head of the international security presence in consultation with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General;

16. Decides that the prohibitions imposed by paragraph 8 of resolution
1160 (1998) shall not apply to arms and related matériel for the use of the international civil and security presences;

17. Welcomes the work in hand in the European Union and other
international organizations to develop a comprehensive approach to the economic development and stabilization of the region affected by the Kosovo crisis, including the implementation of a Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe with broad international participation in order to further the promotion of democracy, economic prosperity, stability and regional cooperation;

18. Demands that all States in the region cooperate fully in the
implementation of all aspects of this resolution;

19. Decides that the international civil and security presences are
established for an initial period of 12 months, to continue thereafter unless the Security Council decides otherwise;

20. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council at regular
intervals on the implementation of this resolution, including reports from the leaderships of the international civil and security presences, the first reports to be submitted within 30 days of the adoption of this resolution;

21. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.




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